ENDOVASCULAR TREATMENT OF BRAIN RELATED VASCULAR DISEASES
It is possible to treat cerebral vascular diseases, which are extremely risky, by using endovascular methods without using open surgery. As it is performed for heart angiomas, the targeted vessel is mostly accessed by entering from an artery in the groin. No surgical incision or tissue injury occurs in the treatment performed via the interventional neuroradiology method. It is also referred to as closed brain vascular surgery.
How to perform closed surgery is being performed
The main technique of intravascular (endovascular) i.e. closed cerebral vessel surgery is high-tech angiography. In the procedure that should be performed by experienced physicians, very thin and special structured tubes are placed through the vessels in the groin area and the diseased vessel is again reached through vessels. All stages of diagnosis and treatment are observed live on the screen of the device. The biggest advantage of this method is that, as is the case in open surgery, no incisions are required in the periphery of the diseased vessel that needs to be reached.
Endovascular treatment of cerebrovascular diseases
Many diseases can be treated without the use of surgical methods.
- Brain hemorrhages (depending on bubble or vein bundle)
- Aneurysm (bubble) and Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)
- Arterial venous leakage (Arteriovenous Fistula-AVF)
- Treatment of vasospasm frequently encountered after cerebral hemorrhage
- Assisted treatment of tumors of the brain and spinal cord
- Vascular stenosis
- Treatment of childhood eye tumors (Retinoblastoma)
The balloon-shaped structure that develops from a weak point in the wall of the arteries feeding the brain is called aneurysm. Interventional neuroradiology is the most commonly used treatment for aneurysm. Since the aneurism wall is not as strong as normal veins, it can explode with blood pressure and cause cerebral hemorrhage. The main goal of treatment is to prevent the ingress of blood into the bubble. When this is accomplished, the possibility of vessel explosion is taken care of as the pressure due to the blood flow in the balloon disappears. The treatment is based on the vein bubble that is formed in the depths of the brain, the angiography of the vein without touching the tissues, filling the inside of the bubble or closing it with smart stents specially designed for the brain vessels.
AVM and AVF treatment
AVM disease, which is caused by the formation of abnormal vascular channels instead of the capillaries that should be in the brain, disrupts the perfusion of normal tissue. The AVM disease may cause epilepsy, progressive palsy, speech and visual impairment as well as cranial hemorrhage. Via interventional Neuroradiology treatment, the bundles and fistula called AVM can be filled and treated thus preventing future cranial hemorrhages. AVF and arterial leakage are also treated with the same method.
Treatment of jugular vein and cranial vein stenosis
Stenosis due to vascular stiffness may occur in the coronary vessels and brain vessels as it is the case in heart vessels. Progression of these strictures may cause temporary or permanent paralysis. The treatment performed is based on passing the narrow section through the vein and expanding the stenosis via wire cages called stents.
One of the most urgent cases in medicine is stroke, which is caused by a blood cloth reaching the brain vessels and occluding the vein. A possibility of complete recovery exists when intervention is performed early on. Entrance is performed through the thigh, and the cloth is removed during this angiographic procedure.
In addition, the main veins of the tumor are occluded by endovascular intervention prior to surgical removal of large brain tumors which enables an easier surgery with less blood loss.
Advantages of endovascular method compared to surgery;
- Since no incision is made, the main advantage this method is its tissue friendliness.
- Lack of open surgical procedure
- Low risk of infection
- Shorter hospital stay (usually 1 night)
- Less anesthesia requirement.
- Faster recovery and fast return to everyday life